Defying a ban on political slogans at the march from town square in the main town of Novi Pazar, supporters of Torcida Sandzak football club waved banners reading ‘Freedom for Palestine, Afganistan and Libya’, as well as 'The Prophet is in my heart' - the only one sanctioned by local authorities.
There was a heavy police presence at the march, where protesters also waved the flags of Turkey and Bosnia.
"The Islamic community in Serbia did not take part in organising the protest but it has its full support, as Muslims have the right to protest against such insults," said Sandzak's mufti Muamer Zukorlic.
Western nations ramped up security at their embassies and consulates around the world on Friday, fearing further Muslim fury over the anti-Islam film and recently published cartoons of the Prophet Mohammed in French magazine Charlie Hebdo including two drawings showing him naked.
The low-budget film 'Innocence of Muslims' portrays Islam's Prophet Mohammed as a womanising fraudster and is believed to have been made by a Egyptian Copt living in the US.
The film sparked a wave of violent protests in Muslim countries last week when the American ambassador in Libya and three of his staff were killed in an attack on the US Consulate in Benghazi, allegedly as riots sparked by the movie spread from Egypt.